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VIETNAM WAR:  AFTER 40 YEARS
The deep folly of an unnecessary war

Lawrence Wittner

Forty years after the American war in Vietnam ended in ignominious defeat, the traces of that terrible conflict are disappearing.
Travelling through Vietnam during the latter half of April 2015 with a group of erstwhile antiwar activists, I was struck by the transformation of what was once an impoverished, war-devastated peasant society into a modern nation.  Its cities and towns are bustling with life and energy.  Vast numbers of motorbikes surge through their streets, including 4.2 million in Hanoi and 7 million in Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon). A thriving commercial culture has emerged, based not only on many small shops, but on an influx of giant Western, Japanese, and other corporations.
 Although Vietnam is officially a Communist nation, about 40 per cent of the economy is capitalist, and the government is making great efforts to encourage private foreign investment. Indeed, over the past decade, Vietnam has enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in the world. 

Agricultural powerhouse
Not only have manufacturing and tourism expanded dramatically, but Vietnam has become an agricultural powerhouse.  Today it is the world’s second largest exporter of rice, and one of the world’s leading exporters of coffee, pepper, rubber, and other agricultural commodities.  Another factor distancing the country from what the Vietnamese call “the American War” is the rapid increase in Vietnam’s population.  Only 41 million in 1975, it now tops 90 million, with most of it under the age of 30 — too young to have any direct experience with the conflict.
Vietnam has also made a remarkable recovery in world affairs.  It now has diplomatic relations with 189 countries, and enjoys good relations with all the major nations.

Agent Orange: horrible birth defects
Nevertheless, the people of Vietnam paid a very heavy price for their independence from foreign domination.  Some three million of them died in the American War. In addition, many, many Vietnamese were wounded or crippled in the conflict.  Perhaps the most striking long-term damage resulted from the U.S. military’s use of Agent Orange (dioxin) as a defoliant.  Vietnamese officials estimate that, today, some four million of their people suffer the terrible effects of this chemical, which not only destroys the bodies of those exposed to it, but has led to horrible birth defects and developmental disabilities into the second and third generations.  Much of Vietnam’s land remains contaminated by Agent Orange, as well as by unexploded ordnance (UXO). 
Indeed, since the end of the American war in 1975, the landmines, shells, and bombs that continue to litter the nation’s soil have wounded or killed over 105,000 Vietnamese — many of them children.
During the immediate post-war years, Vietnam’s ruin was exacerbated by additional factors.  These included a U.S. government embargo on trade with Vietnam, U.S. government efforts to isolate Vietnam diplomatically, and a 1979 Chinese military invasion of Vietnam employing 600,000 troops.  Although the Vietnamese managed to expel the Chinese — just as they had previously routed the French and the Americans — China continued border skirmishes with Vietnam until 1988.  In addition, during the first post-war decade, the ruling Vietnamese Communist Party pursued a hard-line, repressive policy that undermined what was left of the economy and alienated much of the population.  Misery and starvation were widespread.

A remarkable comeback
Nevertheless, starting in the mid-1980s, the country made a remarkable comeback.  This recovery was facilitated by Communist Party reformers who loosened the reins of power, encouraged foreign investment, and worked at developing a friendlier relationship with other nations, especially the United States.  In 1995, the U.S. and Vietnamese governments resumed diplomatic relations.  Although these changes did not provide a panacea for the nation’s ills — for example, the U.S. State Department informed the new U.S. ambassador that he must never mention Agent Orange — Vietnam’s circumstances, and particularly its relationship with the United States, gradually improved.  U.S.-Vietnamese trade expanded substantially, reaching $35 billion in 2014.  Thousands of Vietnamese students participated in educational exchanges. In recent years, the U.S. government even began funding programmes to help clean up Agent Orange contamination and UXO.
Although, in part, this U.S.-Vietnamese détente resulted from the growing flexibility of officials in both nations, recently it has also reflected the apprehension of both governments about the increasingly assertive posture of China in Asian affairs.  Worried about China’s unilateral occupation of uninhabited islands in the South China Sea during 2014, both governments began to resist it — the United States through its “Pacific pivot” and Vietnam through an ever closer relationship with the United States to “balance” China. 
Although both nations officially support the settlement of the conflict over the disputed islands through diplomacy centred on the 10 countries that comprise the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), officials in Vietnam, increasingly nervous about China’s ambitions, appear to welcome the growth of a more powerful U.S. military presence in the region.  In the context of this emerging agreement on regional security, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, U.S. Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter, and U.S. President Barack Obama will be visiting Vietnam later this year.
This shift from warring enemies to cooperative partners over the past 40 years should lead to solemn reflection.  In the Vietnam War, the U.S. government laid waste to a poor peasant nation in an effort to prevent the triumph of a Communist revolution that U.S. policymakers insisted would result in the conquest of the United States.  And yet, when this counter-revolutionary effort collapsed, the predicted Red tide did not sweep over the shores of California.  Instead, an independent nation emerged that could — and did — work amicably with the U.S. government.  This development highlights the unnecessary nature — indeed, the tragedy — of America’s vastly destructive war in Vietnam.  It also underscores the deeper folly of relying on war to cope with international issues.
Dr. Lawrence Wittner is Professor of History emeritus at SUNY/Albany.  His latest book is a satirical novel about university corporatization and rebellion, What’s Going On at UAardvark?
— Counterpunch

Comment

Lawrence Wittner

Forty years after the American war in Vietnam ended in ignominious defeat, the traces of that terrible conflict are disappearing.
Travelling through Vietnam during the latter half of April 2015 with a group of erstwhile antiwar activists, I was struck by the transformation of what was once an impoverished, war-devastated peasant society into a modern nation.  Its cities and towns are bustling with life and energy.  Vast numbers of motorbikes surge through their streets, including 4.2 million in Hanoi and 7 million in Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon). A thriving commercial culture has emerged, based not only on many small shops, but on an influx of giant Western, Japanese, and other corporations.
 Although Vietnam is officially a Communist nation, about 40 per cent of the economy is capitalist, and the government is making great efforts to encourage private foreign investment. Indeed, over the past decade, Vietnam has enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in the world. 

Agricultural powerhouse
Not only have manufacturing and tourism expanded dramatically, but Vietnam has become an agricultural powerhouse.  Today it is the world’s second largest exporter of rice, and one of the world’s leading exporters of coffee, pepper, rubber, and other agricultural commodities.  Another factor distancing the country from what the Vietnamese call “the American War” is the rapid increase in Vietnam’s population.  Only 41 million in 1975, it now tops 90 million, with most of it under the age of 30 — too young to have any direct experience with the conflict.
Vietnam has also made a remarkable recovery in world affairs.  It now has diplomatic relations with 189 countries, and enjoys good relations with all the major nations.

Agent Orange: horrible birth defects
Nevertheless, the people of Vietnam paid a very heavy price for their independence from foreign domination.  Some three million of them died in the American War. In addition, many, many Vietnamese were wounded or crippled in the conflict.  Perhaps the most striking long-term damage resulted from the U.S. military’s use of Agent Orange (dioxin) as a defoliant.  Vietnamese officials estimate that, today, some four million of their people suffer the terrible effects of this chemical, which not only destroys the bodies of those exposed to it, but has led to horrible birth defects and developmental disabilities into the second and third generations.  Much of Vietnam’s land remains contaminated by Agent Orange, as well as by unexploded ordnance (UXO). 
Indeed, since the end of the American war in 1975, the landmines, shells, and bombs that continue to litter the nation’s soil have wounded or killed over 105,000 Vietnamese — many of them children.
During the immediate post-war years, Vietnam’s ruin was exacerbated by additional factors.  These included a U.S. government embargo on trade with Vietnam, U.S. government efforts to isolate Vietnam diplomatically, and a 1979 Chinese military invasion of Vietnam employing 600,000 troops.  Although the Vietnamese managed to expel the Chinese — just as they had previously routed the French and the Americans — China continued border skirmishes with Vietnam until 1988.  In addition, during the first post-war decade, the ruling Vietnamese Communist Party pursued a hard-line, repressive policy that undermined what was left of the economy and alienated much of the population.  Misery and starvation were widespread.

A remarkable comeback
Nevertheless, starting in the mid-1980s, the country made a remarkable comeback.  This recovery was facilitated by Communist Party reformers who loosened the reins of power, encouraged foreign investment, and worked at developing a friendlier relationship with other nations, especially the United States.  In 1995, the U.S. and Vietnamese governments resumed diplomatic relations.  Although these changes did not provide a panacea for the nation’s ills — for example, the U.S. State Department informed the new U.S. ambassador that he must never mention Agent Orange — Vietnam’s circumstances, and particularly its relationship with the United States, gradually improved.  U.S.-Vietnamese trade expanded substantially, reaching $35 billion in 2014.  Thousands of Vietnamese students participated in educational exchanges. In recent years, the U.S. government even began funding programmes to help clean up Agent Orange contamination and UXO.
Although, in part, this U.S.-Vietnamese détente resulted from the growing flexibility of officials in both nations, recently it has also reflected the apprehension of both governments about the increasingly assertive posture of China in Asian affairs.  Worried about China’s unilateral occupation of uninhabited islands in the South China Sea during 2014, both governments began to resist it — the United States through its “Pacific pivot” and Vietnam through an ever closer relationship with the United States to “balance” China. 
Although both nations officially support the settlement of the conflict over the disputed islands through diplomacy centred on the 10 countries that comprise the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), officials in Vietnam, increasingly nervous about China’s ambitions, appear to welcome the growth of a more powerful U.S. military presence in the region.  In the context of this emerging agreement on regional security, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, U.S. Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter, and U.S. President Barack Obama will be visiting Vietnam later this year.
This shift from warring enemies to cooperative partners over the past 40 years should lead to solemn reflection.  In the Vietnam War, the U.S. government laid waste to a poor peasant nation in an effort to prevent the triumph of a Communist revolution that U.S. policymakers insisted would result in the conquest of the United States.  And yet, when this counter-revolutionary effort collapsed, the predicted Red tide did not sweep over the shores of California.  Instead, an independent nation emerged that could — and did — work amicably with the U.S. government.  This development highlights the unnecessary nature — indeed, the tragedy — of America’s vastly destructive war in Vietnam.  It also underscores the deeper folly of relying on war to cope with international issues.
Dr. Lawrence Wittner is Professor of History emeritus at SUNY/Albany.  His latest book is a satirical novel about university corporatization and rebellion, What’s Going On at UAardvark?
— Counterpunch


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Sri Lanka: Shift from victory day to remembrance day

Jehan Perera in Colombo

May 18 has been a day of divisive sentiment since the year 2009.  This was the day the war ended on the battlefields of the North.  This meant the dawn of peace and an end to terrorism that had plagued the country for nearly three decades.  But to the Tamils who had supported the campaign of the LTTE to separate the North and East of the country, it was the bitter end of a struggle that had gone nowhere.  British Tamil Forum president Fr S J Emanuel framed the dichotomy as “The end of the war between the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE meant two entirely different things with different rationale to justify their actions.  For the Government it was a victory over Tamil terrorism, end of a war and beginning of peace. But for the Tamils it was the culmination of another mass massacre of militants and civilians and the beginning of incarcerations and further militarization, robbing of lands and missing of persons.”
Remembrance can be an act of union or of division.  The Victory Day event organized in Colombo on May 18 by supporters of former President Mahinda Rajapaksa titled “Protect the Motherland Liberated by Heroes” was to counter “efforts to undermine the service rendered by our valiant troops in liberating the motherland from terrorism” according to organizers of the event.  The government of the former president made the victory over the LTTE the centre piece of its political programme.  Its success in achieving victory over the LTTE was used time and again at election campaigns to generate nationalistic pride in the majority of people which translated into majority support at elections.  May 18 became an occasion to remind the people of the war victory. 
The decision of the present government headed by President Maithripala Sirisena to redefine May 18 a Day of Remembrance marks a significant break with this past.  However, it is still not a complete break.  The government’s decision has been to have a politically pragmatic event in the southern heartland of Matara which reflects continuity with change.  This is to have a military parade, as in the past, attended by the President.  The sacrifice of the Sri Lankan security forces who ensured the territorial unity of the country and the final military triumph over the LTTE and its separatist campaign will be the main theme of this event.  But on this occasion the government also announced that it would make the remembrance of all who lost their lives a part of the event.

Welcome shift
The government’s decision to bring the loss of life during the war into focus on this occasion through a Day of Remembrance is welcome.  The democratic space that has opened up under the government of President Maithripala Sirisena needs to be used to strengthen the reconciliation process and not be used for the purpose of gaining narrow political advantage by divisive political statements. The need for reconciliation between all communities must be foremost in the minds of all people and our political leaders.  The genuine Tamil grievances that created conditions for the Tamil militancy need to be addressed urgently.  The government’s redefinition of May 18 to be a Day of Remembrance is one of the steps forward in the process to national reconciliation.
The change in government that took place after the presidential election of January 8 has led to a new relationship between the government and Tamil polity.  President Sirisena’s victory at the election was made possible by the large majorities he secured in all electorates where the Tamil and Muslim votes predominated.  The president is aware that the ethnic minorities placed their trust in him.  Following his election he, and key members of the government, have publicly acknowledged the multi ethnic and multi religious nature of the country and the need to govern the polity through democratic means.
Since his election, President Sirisena has ensured that some of the immediate Tamil grievances have been addressed, or are in the process of being addressed. He replaced the two governors of the Northern and Eastern provinces who were former military commanders with those who are purely civilian and with a track record of sensitivity to the aspirations of the ethnic minorities.  Governor Palihakkara in the North was a member of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission which produced a road map on national reconciliation for the country which has received international support.  Governor Austin Fernando in the East was defense secretary during the time of the Ceasefire Agreement with the LTTE which was the period when the hope of a negotiated end to the war was at its highest.

Mutual remembrance
More recently, the government under President Sirisena’s leadership has also been releasing land taken over by the former government from the people in the North and East even though his good intentions have been slowed down by legal processes.  There has been an opening of space for civil society activism and for the voicing of Tamil aspirations such as for a greater sharing of political power.  In the context of May 18 and the declaration of Remembrance Day there has been resurgence in the resolve of civil and political groups in the North to commemorate Tamil losses in the war.  This was a space that was denied during the period of the previous government.  The commemoration of the dead in the North will necessarily involve LTTE cadre.  They were kith and kin of the people of the North. 
The challenge for the future is to ensure that the May 18 is not used for narrow and divisive political purposes.  From 2009 onwards, the government did not permit the commemoration of the LTTE and cracked down on the public commemorations in the North and East, even of those events that were ostensibly to mourn everyone who lost their lives.  This was on account of the inseparability of the LTTE and the civilian losses in the last phase.  On this occasion too, the government has not been willing to permit the public commemoration of May 18 in the North, and took out injunctions from the courts to block such commemorations.  There were plans to declare a “week of genocide” in the North by sections of the Northern polity and civil society. 
One of the key recommendations of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission appointed by the previous government was that there should be a Day of Remembrance in which all who lost their lives should be commemorated and the war be seen as a collective tragedy. All who lost their lives whether members of the security forces, LTTE or civilians were Sri Lankan citizens.  Each group, and community, must remember the other when they commemorate May 18 whether in the North or in the South.  Peace cannot be built by remembering victory and defeat.  Peace can only be built on what we share.  What the people of Sri Lanka share in common is that the war was a tragedy in which the sons and daughters of the country suffered and died, and we resolve that it will never happen again and there is a meeting of minds in the resolve to overcome the past and to have a shared future.  The government needs to also address longer term Tamil and other minority grievances. This is the best kind of reconciliation.

Comment

Jehan Perera in Colombo

May 18 has been a day of divisive sentiment since the year 2009.  This was the day the war ended on the battlefields of the North.  This meant the dawn of peace and an end to terrorism that had plagued the country for nearly three decades.  But to the Tamils who had supported the campaign of the LTTE to separate the North and East of the country, it was the bitter end of a struggle that had gone nowhere.  British Tamil Forum president Fr S J Emanuel framed the dichotomy as “The end of the war between the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE meant two entirely different things with different rationale to justify their actions.  For the Government it was a victory over Tamil terrorism, end of a war and beginning of peace. But for the Tamils it was the culmination of another mass massacre of militants and civilians and the beginning of incarcerations and further militarization, robbing of lands and missing of persons.”
Remembrance can be an act of union or of division.  The Victory Day event organized in Colombo on May 18 by supporters of former President Mahinda Rajapaksa titled “Protect the Motherland Liberated by Heroes” was to counter “efforts to undermine the service rendered by our valiant troops in liberating the motherland from terrorism” according to organizers of the event.  The government of the former president made the victory over the LTTE the centre piece of its political programme.  Its success in achieving victory over the LTTE was used time and again at election campaigns to generate nationalistic pride in the majority of people which translated into majority support at elections.  May 18 became an occasion to remind the people of the war victory. 
The decision of the present government headed by President Maithripala Sirisena to redefine May 18 a Day of Remembrance marks a significant break with this past.  However, it is still not a complete break.  The government’s decision has been to have a politically pragmatic event in the southern heartland of Matara which reflects continuity with change.  This is to have a military parade, as in the past, attended by the President.  The sacrifice of the Sri Lankan security forces who ensured the territorial unity of the country and the final military triumph over the LTTE and its separatist campaign will be the main theme of this event.  But on this occasion the government also announced that it would make the remembrance of all who lost their lives a part of the event.

Welcome shift
The government’s decision to bring the loss of life during the war into focus on this occasion through a Day of Remembrance is welcome.  The democratic space that has opened up under the government of President Maithripala Sirisena needs to be used to strengthen the reconciliation process and not be used for the purpose of gaining narrow political advantage by divisive political statements. The need for reconciliation between all communities must be foremost in the minds of all people and our political leaders.  The genuine Tamil grievances that created conditions for the Tamil militancy need to be addressed urgently.  The government’s redefinition of May 18 to be a Day of Remembrance is one of the steps forward in the process to national reconciliation.
The change in government that took place after the presidential election of January 8 has led to a new relationship between the government and Tamil polity.  President Sirisena’s victory at the election was made possible by the large majorities he secured in all electorates where the Tamil and Muslim votes predominated.  The president is aware that the ethnic minorities placed their trust in him.  Following his election he, and key members of the government, have publicly acknowledged the multi ethnic and multi religious nature of the country and the need to govern the polity through democratic means.
Since his election, President Sirisena has ensured that some of the immediate Tamil grievances have been addressed, or are in the process of being addressed. He replaced the two governors of the Northern and Eastern provinces who were former military commanders with those who are purely civilian and with a track record of sensitivity to the aspirations of the ethnic minorities.  Governor Palihakkara in the North was a member of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission which produced a road map on national reconciliation for the country which has received international support.  Governor Austin Fernando in the East was defense secretary during the time of the Ceasefire Agreement with the LTTE which was the period when the hope of a negotiated end to the war was at its highest.

Mutual remembrance
More recently, the government under President Sirisena’s leadership has also been releasing land taken over by the former government from the people in the North and East even though his good intentions have been slowed down by legal processes.  There has been an opening of space for civil society activism and for the voicing of Tamil aspirations such as for a greater sharing of political power.  In the context of May 18 and the declaration of Remembrance Day there has been resurgence in the resolve of civil and political groups in the North to commemorate Tamil losses in the war.  This was a space that was denied during the period of the previous government.  The commemoration of the dead in the North will necessarily involve LTTE cadre.  They were kith and kin of the people of the North. 
The challenge for the future is to ensure that the May 18 is not used for narrow and divisive political purposes.  From 2009 onwards, the government did not permit the commemoration of the LTTE and cracked down on the public commemorations in the North and East, even of those events that were ostensibly to mourn everyone who lost their lives.  This was on account of the inseparability of the LTTE and the civilian losses in the last phase.  On this occasion too, the government has not been willing to permit the public commemoration of May 18 in the North, and took out injunctions from the courts to block such commemorations.  There were plans to declare a “week of genocide” in the North by sections of the Northern polity and civil society. 
One of the key recommendations of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission appointed by the previous government was that there should be a Day of Remembrance in which all who lost their lives should be commemorated and the war be seen as a collective tragedy. All who lost their lives whether members of the security forces, LTTE or civilians were Sri Lankan citizens.  Each group, and community, must remember the other when they commemorate May 18 whether in the North or in the South.  Peace cannot be built by remembering victory and defeat.  Peace can only be built on what we share.  What the people of Sri Lanka share in common is that the war was a tragedy in which the sons and daughters of the country suffered and died, and we resolve that it will never happen again and there is a meeting of minds in the resolve to overcome the past and to have a shared future.  The government needs to also address longer term Tamil and other minority grievances. This is the best kind of reconciliation.


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 ISLAMABAD DIARY

End of isolation for Pakistan cricket

Jonaid Iqbal

Zimbabwe cricket team arrived in Lahore Tuesday morning to play competition cricket in Pakistan. The high stake series begins with the first T-20 match to be played at Gaddafi Stadium today.
Pakistan T20 captain Shahid Afridi described resumption of international cricket in this country was ‘like spring after six years of autumn.
The team’s arrival here ends six years international isolation for Pakistan Cricket after 2009 attack at Lahore on the Sri Lankan team.
According to Zimbabwe cricket captain Elton Chigumbura,  his team decided to tour this country as they [too] had experienced isolation.
Speaking after Mr. Chigumbura, another elite member of Zimbabwe team, Mr. Ozias Bvute, added Pakistan’s six years without top cricket fixture is like the removal of Zimbabwe Test Status between 2005 and 2009. “Therefore, we understand the politics of isolation and feel ‘isolation is not the right way.’
The visiting team was provided heightened security. According to some members of the team ‘this is something new, ‘but they are not worried because, as they say, ‘the main thing [for them] is to play cricket and they are focused on cricketing matters.’
Zimbabwe squad : Elton Chigumbura (captain), Sikandar Raza Butt, Chamunorwa Chibhabha, Charles Coventry, Graeme Cremer, Craig Ervine, Roy Kaia, Hamilton Masakadza, Christopher Mpofu, Tawanda Mupariwa, Richmond Mutumbami, Tinashe Panyangara, Vusimuzi Sibanda, Prosper Utseya, Brian Vitori, Sean Williams.
Officials: Dav Whatmore (head coach), Douglas Hondog (bowling coach), Andrew Waller (batting coach), Stanley Chioza (analyst) Anesu Mupotaringa (physio), Christian Chiketa (manager).
Pakistan Team: Shahid Afridi (captain), Sarfraz Ahmed (vice-captain/ wicket-keeper), Ahmed Shehzad, Mohammad Hafeez, Mukhtar Ahmed, Nauman Anwar, Shoaib Malik, Umar Akmal, Mohammad Rizwan (wicket-keeper), Anwar Ali, Hammad Azam, Imad Wasim, Bilawal Bhatti, Wahab Riaz, Mohammad Sami.
Pakistan and Zimbabwe will play two T20 matches as well as three ODIs.

Email: spectator1pk@gmail.com

Comment

Jonaid Iqbal

Zimbabwe cricket team arrived in Lahore Tuesday morning to play competition cricket in Pakistan. The high stake series begins with the first T-20 match to be played at Gaddafi Stadium today.
Pakistan T20 captain Shahid Afridi described resumption of international cricket in this country was ‘like spring after six years of autumn.
The team’s arrival here ends six years international isolation for Pakistan Cricket after 2009 attack at Lahore on the Sri Lankan team.
According to Zimbabwe cricket captain Elton Chigumbura,  his team decided to tour this country as they [too] had experienced isolation.
Speaking after Mr. Chigumbura, another elite member of Zimbabwe team, Mr. Ozias Bvute, added Pakistan’s six years without top cricket fixture is like the removal of Zimbabwe Test Status between 2005 and 2009. “Therefore, we understand the politics of isolation and feel ‘isolation is not the right way.’
The visiting team was provided heightened security. According to some members of the team ‘this is something new, ‘but they are not worried because, as they say, ‘the main thing [for them] is to play cricket and they are focused on cricketing matters.’
Zimbabwe squad : Elton Chigumbura (captain), Sikandar Raza Butt, Chamunorwa Chibhabha, Charles Coventry, Graeme Cremer, Craig Ervine, Roy Kaia, Hamilton Masakadza, Christopher Mpofu, Tawanda Mupariwa, Richmond Mutumbami, Tinashe Panyangara, Vusimuzi Sibanda, Prosper Utseya, Brian Vitori, Sean Williams.
Officials: Dav Whatmore (head coach), Douglas Hondog (bowling coach), Andrew Waller (batting coach), Stanley Chioza (analyst) Anesu Mupotaringa (physio), Christian Chiketa (manager).
Pakistan Team: Shahid Afridi (captain), Sarfraz Ahmed (vice-captain/ wicket-keeper), Ahmed Shehzad, Mohammad Hafeez, Mukhtar Ahmed, Nauman Anwar, Shoaib Malik, Umar Akmal, Mohammad Rizwan (wicket-keeper), Anwar Ali, Hammad Azam, Imad Wasim, Bilawal Bhatti, Wahab Riaz, Mohammad Sami.
Pakistan and Zimbabwe will play two T20 matches as well as three ODIs.

Email: spectator1pk@gmail.com


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